No Workplace is immune from Biological Hazards. They can appear and disappear due to a variety of factors, so it is important for one to be prepared for them in the workplace.

In this edition of our Workplace Hazards series we are covering Biological Hazards.

A Biological Hazard is an organism or substances produced by an organism that may pose a threat to human health.  Anything that can cause harm to people, animals, or infectious plant materials can be considered a Biological Hazard. They exist in most workplaces that involve working around other people, unsanitary conditions, in labs, or in the environment.

1. How to know if something is a Biological Hazard

Any risk that comes from the biosphere – people, plants, and animals can be considered biological hazards.

Once Biological Hazards have been identified, it is important to put together a Safety Plan to mitigate the risks. While putting together this plan the organizer should consult employees in the workplace as well as answer the following questions.

Some Examples of Biological Hazards are:

  • Mold and Fungi
  • Blood and Body Fluids
  • Sewage
  • Airborne pathogens such as the common cold
  • Stinging insects
  • Harmful plants
  • Animal and Bird Droppings

Questions to ask when assessing your workplace

  • Are my employees working around other people who may have a disease or sickness?
  • Do my employees work with or around animals and insects?
  • Is the work space clean and clear of mold and fungi?
  • Will my employees be working around potentially hazardous pathogens or biological materials such as sewage?
  • If my employees are around these hazards do they have the right protective equipment to be safe?
  • Are there any “sharp” materials that need to be cleaned regularly and properly and/or disposed of safely and securely?

2. What to do once the hazards have been identified:

Once you have identified Biological Hazards in the workplace it is important to eliminate as many as possible as well as reduce the risk posed by other ones. By implementing controls in the workplace, the risk of Biological Hazards can be greatly reduced and, in some cases, eliminated completely. Two types of controls that can be used to address the hazards are Administrative and Engineering Controls

3. Administrative Vs. Engineering Controls

  • Engineering controls reduce risk by reducing or eliminating risk through physical means. Some examples of engineering controls for Biological Hazards are: regular cleaning of the workplace, pest prevention/extermination, requiring that safety equipment be worn, and proper disposal of items that may pose a biological risk.
  • Administrative controls reduce risk by changing work processes and activities in order to make them safer. Some examples of administrative controls are providing proper sick leave to employees, immunization programs, and limiting exposure of time for employees around potential Biological Hazards and training them to work safely around them.
  • Once administrative and engineering controls have been implemented to reduce risk from Biological Hazards it is important to revise your safety strategy at least once a year and every time the workplace conditions change. For some workplaces, the changing of the seasons can affect these controls, so it is important to consider the biological conditions that your employees are working in.

4. How working alone increases risk from Biological Hazards

Working alone makes people more vulnerable to Biological Hazards because they may not be able to seek help as easily. In addition, some Biological Hazards are hard to identify. If the employee is working outside, there is an added risk for Biological Hazards to be around. For example, a worker who is allergic to bee stings may get a severe allergic reaction and might be unable to call for help. Biological Hazards can be elusive. They can appear and then disappear in a short period of time, so it is important to know how to recognize and prepare for them.


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